RTM,Test Plan,Test Scenario,Test Cases,Use Case and Defects

What is Requirement Traceability Matrix?
Typically in software testing, traceability matrix is used to map the requirements with the test cases in order to ensure that there are test cases for all the requirements.

What is RTM?Why Do we need RTM?
Traceability Matrix means it provide mapping between user requirements and the test cases. Main Advantage is if we missed any test cases for the requirements at that time we can find out easy for what test cases missed for the what functionality by preparing the traceability matrix.

The Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM) is a document that links requirements throughout the validation process. The purpose of the Requirements Traceability Matrix is to ensure that all requirements defined for a system are tested in the test protocols.

An Example of RTM is given below:

What is Use Case?
Use Case is a document which describes the end to end behavior of the system. It has “User action” which defines the action performed by the user and “System action/response” which describes the action done by the system in response.

We have 2 High Level Use Cases here:

Use Case 1: User Registration
Use Case 2: User Logs In

Use Case 1: User Registration

This use case is for the user registration. A user must register with the web site before they are able to use it. Registration primarily consists of entering an email address for verification and creating a password.

Precondition: User is not a member of the website.

U1: User navigates to the homepage and selects the ‘New User’ link.
S1: System displays the new user registration screen.

U2: User enters their email address and password, and the conformation password.
S2: System validates that the email does not already exists. If it does not, a new user is created and a confirmation email is sent with a confirmation link that needs to be selected before the user is allowed to enter the site.

U3: User checks their email site for the email that the system sent and gets the confirmation link. The user selects this confirmation link.
S3: System accepts the confirmation link and requests the user to log in using their email and password.

Post Condition: User is a member of the website.

Use Case 2: User Logs In

This use case is for the user login. The user must supply their login credentials in order to gain access to the website.

Precondition: User is not logged in, but is a member of the web site.

U1: User navigates to the website and selects log in.
S1: System displays the login screen.

U2: User enters the email and password and clicks the login button.
S2: System attempts to authenticate the user with the given
information. If the user has entered valid information, the system navigates to the Welcome Screen; otherwise an error message is displayed.

Post Condition: User is logged in.

What is Bug and Defect in Software testing?
A Software Defect is a condition in a software product which does not meet a software requirement (as stated in the requirement specifications) or end-user expectations (which may not be specified but are reasonable).

Bug VS Defects:
• A bug is the result of a coding error
• A defect is a deviation from the requirements

Common Defect Headers comes with reporting tools:


Defect Body

Summary: Login is not working for Valid credentials
Test Data: UserID: QaTest1 Password: secure1

How to recreate:
1. Go to www.test.qa.com
2. Click on Login
3. Input user ID: QaTest1
4. Input Password: secure1
5. Click Login Button

Expected Output: Home Page should be appeared
Actual Output: Credentials Incorrect

See the following Screenshot for Details of the defect:
Add a screenshot here

Another Screenshot of reporting a defect:

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